Located at interface of Western Ghats and Deccan Plateau Biogeographic Zones of India, wetland habitat developed as a consequence of deposition of silt over 100 years and legal protection has resulted NMWLS as a biodiversity rich area. Till now 536 species of aquatic and terrestrial plants, 8 species of mammals, 265 species of birds, 24 species of freshwater fishes, 41 species of butterflies have been recorded from the area. NMWLS contains 1 species of plant, 4 species of birds and 4 species of fishes endemic to the region. Besides NMWLS is utilized by wetland dependent species especially birds during migration season from October to March over the years. Out of 265 bird species which visit NMWLS, 148 species are migratory (distant and local) and 88 species are relevant to Ramsar Convention. It also has 1 species of plant, 1 species of mammals, 8 species of birds and 2 species of freshwater fishes which are globally threatened.
Plants: The checklist of Plants of Nandur Madhameshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.
BIRDS: The checklist of Birds of Nandur Madhameshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.
BUTTERFLIES: The checklist of Butterflies of Nandur Madhameshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.
FISHES: The checklist of Fishes of Nandur Madhameshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.
MAMMALS: The checklist of Mammals of Nandur Madhameshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.